LYNCH's theory



1) the environmental image

Watching the city can give a special pleasure as banal as it can be.

As an Architecture, a city is a space-building, but enormous, an artifact that can be perceived over long periods of time.

Every citizen has long associations with some part of his city and his image is imbued with memories and meanings.

Moving elements, and particularly people and activities, are in a city as important as fixed physical elements.

The city is not only the object of perception (and perhaps of enjoyment) for the very different people of character and social category. "

2) Readability

Granting structure and identity to the environment is a vital capacity of all animals with movement.

The means used are countless: the visual sensations of color, shape, movement or polarization of light, and other senses such as smell, hearing, touch, kinesthesia, perception of gravity and perhaps Electric and magical fields. These orientation techniques ranging from the polar flight of a gull to the gastropod path on the microscopic topography of a rock are described and described in all their importance in a wide range of literature.

To lose everything in the modern city is a rather rare experience for most people. But if we experience the disavowal of losing orientation, the sense of anxiety and even the fear that accompanies us, it reveals to us how closely it is tied to our sense of balance and well-being "

3) Image Formation

The environmental image is the result of a mutual process between the observer and his environment.

The environment suggests distinctions and realities, the observer selects. Organizes and attributes meaning to what it sees.

The consistency of the image can be made in various ways. In the physical object there can be little order or remarkable, or, through a prolonged familiarity, their mental image reaches identity and organization. "

4) Structure and identity

"An environmental image can be analyzed into three components: identity: structure and meaning. Stretching these components for analysis is useful as long as you keep in mind that they actually appear together. A functional image first requires the identification of the object, which implies its distinction from other things. Its recognition as a separable unit ".

This is called identity, not in the sense of equality with anything else, but with the meaning of uniqueness or uniqueness.

5) Figurability

As emphasis will be placed on the physical environment as an independent variable, this study will focus on physical qualities that are related to the attributes of identity and structure of the mental image. This leads to the definition of what could be called a figureage: that is, the quality that gives a physical object a high probability of evoking a vigorous image in those observers.

It consists of that shape, color or arrangement that facilitates the formation of vividly identified, potentially structured, highly functional environmental images. It could be called legibility or perhaps visibility in a wider meaning, so that objects can not only be seen, but also sharply and intensely presented to the senses.

The shape of the urban form will be the center of the study that follows:

In a beautiful environment there are other fundamental properties: the meaning or the expansion, the delight of the senses, the rhythm. The stimulus. The possibility of choice ..

Stopping our attention on the likeness of no means denying its importance.

Our purpose is simply to examine the need for entity and structure in our perceptive world and to illustrate the relevance of this quality to the particular case of the complex and changing urban environment. "


Linch states: "To understand the role of environmental images in our cities we have had to look carefully at some urban areas and talk to their inhabitants." (By introducing into the analysis and design of the city the complex and controversial mechanisms of participation in the urban environment, We need to say that today there are political realities that positively introduce this concept: American, Dutch, Italian experiences, but the participation has still not matured to become a generalized pattern of planning). "From the systematic observation of the area walked by a trained hervor who shows on a plant the presence of the various elements, their visibility, their" strength "or" weakness "of images and their connections:

THE To pinpoint the main elements at Pachino was not difficult, Linch's objective reading from the general terms of urban design. I analyzed the city, I identified the mechanisms of its growth, its shape, its possible expansion and the new form That the city will have. I have identified the main urban route where the various functions are located; The idea of the path is contrasted with the existing idea (square) it becomes one of the points in the city, and not the only one. Identifying the elements of urban composition. It seems that for each City there is a public image that is the overlap of Individual images. Or maybe there is a series of public images owned by a number of people. These group images are indispensable for an individual to act successfully in his environment and to collaborate with others. Each individual image is unique, and has some content that Are rarely or almost never communicated, yet it approximates the public image that is more or less inclusive in different environments. This analysis is limited to perceptible physical effects. There are other influences on the figure, such as the social meaning of an area, its function, its history, its name. These will be brushed, as here the goal is to discover the intrinsic role of form. It is to be assumed that in the actual design the form should be used to reinforce meaning and not to deny it. In urban images studied so far, content referable to physical forms can be instrumentally classified into five types of elements: paths, margins, neighborhoods, nodes, and references.1) RoutesThe channels along which the observer moves habitually, occasionally or potenzialmnete. They can be streets, pedestrian streets, public transport lines, canals, railways. For many people these are the preeminent elements of their image. People watch the city of menttra moving along them and other environmental elements are arranged and selected along these paths. 2) Margin margins are the linear elements that are not used or considered as paths by the observer. They are boundaries between two different phases, linear interpretations of continuity: shores, sunken rail lines, edges of building development, walls. Rather than axial coordinates, they are external references. Margins of this nature can build barriers, more or less penetrably, that divide a zone on the other or can be saturated, according to which the zones are connected and joined to each other. These elements of margin, though probably important characteristics of the organization, particularly for the role of generalized landslides, such as the water or the walls surrounding a city.3) QuartieriQuartieri are the areas of the city of medium or large size, conceived As it has a two-dimensional extension in which the observer enters mentally "inside" and is recognizable as there are some identifying features in them. Always identifiable from within, they are also used for external references if visible from the outside. Most people in some ways structure their own city, with individual divergences that paths or neighborhoods are the dominant elements. This seems to depend not only on individuals, but also on the city being considered.4) KnotsNodes are the points, strategic places in a city where an observer can enter and who are and to whom and from whom he moves. They can be first of all conjunctions, places of interruption of tarsporti, a crossing or convergence of paths, moments of exchange from one structure to another, or nodes can simply be the concentrations that derive their importance from the condensation of some use or some Physical characteristic as is the case for a meeting place at the corner of the street or in a chusa square. Some of these concentration knots are the focus or the climax of a neighborhood on which it radiates its influence and which represents the symbol. The latter can be called nuclei. Many knots naturally take part in the nature of conjunction and concentration at one time. The knot concept is related to the pathway, as the conjunctions are typically convergent with percussion, events on the way. It is similarly bound to the concept of neighborhood, as the nuclei are typically neighborhood intensity fires, their polarizing center. In any case, some nodal points can be found in almost all images, and in some cases may be the dominant character. 5 References References are another type of point elements, but in this case the observer does not enter. They remain external. They are generally made up of an oggetTo physical rather simply defined: building, teach, shop or mountain. Their use implies the separation of an element from an omnipotence of possessiveness. Some reference is far away, usually invisible from a plurality of angles or distances, above smaller elements and is used as a radial reference. References can be internal to the city or at a distance so as to symbolize a consistent direction. They are isolated, golden domes, great hills. Even a moving point, such as the sun, whose movement is sufficient, slow and regular can be used. Other references are mainly localized, visible only in restricted areas to those who approach them in certain directions. Such are the innumerable insignia, shops, trees, door handles and other urban details. They are frequently used as identity indices and even in structure and seem to offer increased reliance as a teenager becomes more familiar.